from Millicent V. Craig

Brief Review of D'Alton

In Part I of "A History of Irish D'Altons" which appeared in the October 1998 issue of "Daltons in History", Vol.1 No. 10, there is a mention of John D'Alton and his contributions to Irish history. In confirming and expanding the genealogical research of his predecessor, Captain Myles D'Alton, he published "Illustrations, Historical and Genealogical, of King James's Irish Army List, 1689, Second Edition, Enlarged". In the Preface D'Alton wrote that he had accumulated a collection of 200 manuscripts as a basis for his work and had an impressive clientele who were the recipients of his writings. From a handful of facts we now have a microscopic view of a man whose contributions to Irish history and Irish family research have been totally underestimated in the course of time.

John D'Alton came from the main line of D'Altons described in the above history. He was born in Bessville, County Westmeath in 1792, the son of William D'Alton, Esq. After graduating from Trinity College, Dublin, he passed the bar in 1813. Although he was a member of governmental and societal commissions, he spent his lifetime collecting historical material of Irish topographical data as well as data about clans and peoples. The "History of the County Dublin" (1838) won the highest prize given by the Royal Irish Academy and for it he also recieved the Cunningham Gold Medal. His "History of Drogheda" (1844) and "Annals of Boyle" (1845) are perhaps the two most widely known of his manuscripts. But these are only a few of his published works. His articles were printed in the The Gentlemen's Magazine and other periodicals.

The "Illustrations, Historical and Genealogical of King James's Irish Army list, 1689, Second Edition" which he originated in 1855 was "numerously and influentially supported" by his own admission. The original "King James Army List, 1689" was long out of print and covered some 500 Irish families in 900 pages of text. He was advised to enlarge the coverage of the septs and families and to "glean all that could be embodied from the native annals as from the rolls and records of Public Offices, accredited repositories, and from public and private libraries".

He originally funded the work himself and eventually an Indemnity Fund was established to defray some of the expenses. The contributors included the Marquess of Abercorn, the Earl of Ellsmere, Roderic O'Connor, Esq., Barrister, Walter Shanly, Esq., Canada, the Earl of Carlisle, Sir Bernard Burke, Ulster King of Arms, William D'Alton Babington* and Mr. Richard D'Alton**. All received multiple copies of "The Illustrations".

D'Alton who had been in ill health announced in 1860 that he would retire from the literary scene. By this time it is reported that he had accumulated information on some 2500 Irish septs and families. He died in Dublin in January 1867 at his home, Summer Hill, and was buried in Glasnevin Cemetery, Dublin.

D'Alton's Family

From Peter Sherlock, Historian of Corpus Christi College, Oxford came the following information relating to D'Alton's family. At this point it is incomplete but worth noting.

John D'Alton b. 29 June 1792, d. 20 January 1867, married c 1818 Catherine Phillips (b. c. 1795, d. 1815). The children were: William (c.1820-1892); Eliza (Sister Mary Margaret); Catherine (c. 1824 - 1897); Nanny D'Alton (Sister Mary Frances); Edward (c.1829-1908); Helena (1833-1852). If there were other children, they did not live to adulthood and marry.

Son William D'Alton b. c. 1820, d. 17 November 1892, married c. 1845 Clarinda Skerrett, widow of George Comyn (c.1818-1891). His children were: John (1848 -1919); Kate, d. 1925; Marion d. 1915; Edward Hyacinth (1852-1906); Phillip James, d. 1922

The three sons of William emigrated to Australia in early adulthood. They were all educated in the best RC Schools in Ireland and Belgium Their father,William, was a QC and Clerk of the King's Bench. John Jr. married Sarah Power in Melbourne in 1878. No issue. Edward Hyacinth born c. 1852 d. Dec. 1906. He married 12 Dec. 1885 Mary Ann Davis (c. 1857-1927). Their children were: William D'Alton 1887 - 1964; Kate D'Alton 1889-1925; Anne
D'Alton b. 1891 (Mrs. Munro); Clarinda D'Alton b. 1893 (Mrs.Smith).

The only son and direct heir William D'Alton (b. 1887) was married in 1914 and had eight children, including two sons, the youngest of whom is still living in Australia and who also has two sons. Sherlock states that the thousands of family letters preserved in Dublin are a wonderful source of the social history of this family.

Disposition of the Manuscripts

In 1924, a granddaughter entrusted the collection of manuscripts to an Irish priest and historian, Rev. Patrick S. Dineen and by this date several manuscripts had been sold. (From the above family data we might assume that the granddaughter was Kate who died in 1925). In 1927, the remainder of the collection was acquired by a Chicago businessman, John N. Smyth and the long sought after manuscripts of John D'Alton were deposited in the Archives of the University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. Although they have never been totally evaluated, they are likely to contain important genealogical data, perhaps even copies of records that were destroyed in the burning of the Records Office of Dublin in 1922.

In the Preface to "Illustrations" D'Alton mentions some of the types of records that he collected that would be of genealogical interest. Facts of importance were "derived from the records of wardships and heirships, the liveries of seisin to such heirs on attaining age, the findings on outlawries for high treason, which like the peculiar tenure of their lands, certified the succession of Irish families". These records apply to hundreds of Irish families, not just D'Altons and could well be a treasury resting in the archives waiting to be discovered and processed.

A letter to the University of Chicago will bring a listing of The D'Alton Collection, and a Catalogue of D'Alton's Manuscript Indexes. The collection now numbers about 178 although the catalog lists only 77. Some of these manuscripts were acquisitions from libraries of others and some of the manuscripts are incomplete, with many blank pages. Quite a few are histories of individual counties of Ireland, topographies of the country as well as of Scotland and Wales, and antiquities such as British Castles.

Worthy of note to genealogists is what might be contained in Catalog Nos. 54 and 55. One volume is a small folio, MS History of Ireland, ...Henry II, and the second is an enlarged volume of the former. They may contain clues to Walter de Aliton, founder of the Irish family. Autobiographical notes are contained in item No. 73 and in the Correspondence folder there are letters to 5 different D'Altons. One group of five letters is correspondence with Katherine D'Alton or Kitty, his wife. Sherlock states that there are 500 such letters to Kitty in the D'Alton Archives in Dublin. In the Miscellaneous file there is a genealogical chart,"House of Rathrone"***, a truly valuable document.

Three completed manuscripts have been deemed worthy of publication but to our knowledge no action has been taken. It is also unclear whether they were written by D'Alton. Irish scholars or historians, or descendents of D'Alton may want to examine this depository of Irish history as an adjunct to their own collections, family data, or as a subject for a scholarly dissertation or biography.

Our gratitide is extended to the U. of Chicago for their assistance and also to Mr. Richard. N. D. Hamilton, DGS Committee Member for his research at the Guildhall Library, London. We also thank Mr. Peter Sherlock, Historian, for his contribution of family data. The Department of Special Collections at the U. of Chicago may be reached at:

Editor's Notes. Bessville is in the Parish of Killare. Within the County of Westmeath at the time of Griffith's Evaluation of Ireland (1848-1864), there were 80 Daltons listed. Just one, John Dalton, of the Parish Killare was at the Bessville Townland. During the same period of time there was a John D'Alton listed in Dublin City Parish and located at Mountjoy Ward, Summer Hill. For those descendents researching this family, the parish records of these two may be worth a look. In the Parish of Killare, there are several other Daltons listed in different townlands.

In "Illustrations" D'Alton notes that "James, the fourth son of John D'Alton of Dundonnel, married Margaret or Mary Purdom, and was the great grandfather of the compiler of the present volume as shown by family deeds. The single entry, therefore suggests a retrospective pedigree of eleven generations for one who now is the only D'Alton inheriting a fee simple estate (inheriting the freehold". The eleven generations are enumerated in "A History of Irish Daltons" which appeared in "Daltons in History" from October 1998 to January 1999.

* William D'Alton Babington. Refer to "A History of Irish D'Altons, Part III, December 1998 "Daltons in History". Note that Christopher D'Alton's son Oliver, died without male issue. His daughter, Elizabeth-Johanna who married her cousin, Ignatius Dillon Begg, had a daughter, Maria-Josephina who married Thomas Babington, Esquire. She had an only son, William D'Alton Babington. In the mid 1800's there are several William Dalton Babingtons listed on the tax rolls of Ireland and one listed in England. Also of note is a compilation of Essays by William Dalton Babington, "The Fallacies of Race Theories" which were written in the 1880's and published in London after his death in 1893.

** Richard D'Alton. Refer to "A History of Irish D'Altons, Part IV", January 1999 "Daltons in History". This may well be the Richard D'Alton of Mount Dalton or a descendent. Obviously, the author, John D'Alton, was in contact with members of other branches of this large D'Alton family who helped to support his work

*** "House of Rathrone". Your editor suggests that this may be a Dalton branch of the family which was located in Limerick, Rathrona Parish. Members of this close knit group, upwards of 15 were located in both the Village of Athea and Templeathea East in the mid 1800s. For more information on them send an e-mail to:

Name: Alexander Reginald Dalton, Private, 46th Bn Australian Infantry, AIF, died 1st April 1918, Age 19.
Parents: Son of William and Rose M. Dalton, born at Albert Park, Victoria
Burial: France

Name: Arthur Victor Wiliam Dalton, Private 60th Bn. Australian Infantry, AIF, died 19 July 1916
Burial: France

Name: Bernard Joseph Dalton, Private, AIF 2/22 Bn. Australian Infantry, died 4 Feb 1942, age 21.
Parents: Son of Joseph Simon and Eileen Mary Dalton of Warmambool, Victoria
Burial: Papua, New Guinea.

Name: Charles Dalton, Private, 39th Bn. Australian Infantry AIF, died 12 Oct 1917, age 26.
Parents: Son of William and Mary Dalton, husband of Gertrude Dalton of Cumberland Ave., Clarence Park, Adelaide, South Australia, native of Newton Heath, Manchester, England.
Burial: Belgium.

Name: Clarence Bernard Dalton, Private 30th Bn. Australian Infantry, AIF, died 2 Nov 1916, age 20.
Parents: Son of George Bernard Dalton of 8 Alfred St., Newcastle East, NSW.
Burial: France

Name: Clive Malcolm Dalton, Sergeant, 4th Australian Light Horse, died 12 Aug 1915, age 21.
Parents: Son of Charles Albin Dalton and Amy Dalton of Victoria Barracks, Sydney NSW.
Burial: Alexandria, Egypt.

Name: Frank Dalton, Private, 37th Bn Australian Infantry, AIF, 8 June 1917, age 24.
Parents: Son of Michael anD Ellen Dalton of 249 Bourke St., Waterloo, NSW, native of Sydney.
Burial: Belgium.

Name: Francis Patrick Dalton, bombardier Royal Australian Artillery, died 1 July 1942, age 26.
Parents: Son of Joseph Simon and Eileen Mary Dalton, Warmambool, Victoria.
Burial: Papua, New Guinea ( same place as his brother Bernard Joseph Dalton).

Name: George Christopher Dalton, Private, AIF, 2/22 Bn. Australian Infantry, died 1 July 1942, age 22.
Parents: Son of Walter and Margaret Dalton; husband of Monica Kathleen Dalton, East Brunswick, Victoria.
Burial: Papua, New Guinea.

Name: Harold Archibald Dalton, corporal, AIF 1 Beach Sigs., Australian Corps of Signals, died 25 Sept 1943, age 24.
Parents: Son of Archibald and Mina Evelyn Dalton of Waverley, NSW.
Burial: Papua, New Guiea.

Name: Herbert Isaac Dalton, MM Diver, 52nd Bn Australian Infantry, AIF.
Wife: Mrs. E. Dalton of West Perth.
Burial: Perth General Cemetery, W. Australia.

Name: John Dalton, Chief Steward, SS Wollongbar (Sydney) Australian Merchant Navy, died 29 April 1943, age 60.
Parents: John and Kathleen Dalton; husband of Helen Frances Dalton of Woollahra, NSW.
Burial: Sydney Memorial, NSW.

Name: James Dalton, Lieutenant 7th Australian Light Horse, died Dec 1918.
Burial: Turkey.

Name: James Dalton Sergeant, 2nd Bn Australian Field Artillery, died 11 Oct 1917, age 34.
Parents: Son of John and Eliza Jane Dalton of "Westward Ho", Carlisle St., Stockton, NSW, native of Salt Ash, NSW.
Burial: The Huts Cemetery, Belgium.

Name: John Edmund Dalton, Corporal, AIF, 2/9 Bn. Australian Infantry, died 29 Dec 1942, age 35.
Parents: Augustine Adolphus and Mary Ann Dalton of Kaimkillenbun, Queensland.
Burial: Papua, New Guinea.

Source: War Graves Commission.

Abiah Dalton was a third generation Dalton, the daughter of Samuel who arrived on the Ship Increase in 1635 with his father Philemon.

Abiah was born in 1670 and married Gershom Haseltine on the 23 June 1690. Gershom was born 31 Jan 1662 and died 16 Oct 1711. Abiah outlived Gershom by 35 years and died in 1746.

IV. gen. Gershom Haseltine, Abiah's son was born 29 Oct 1691 and died 24 Mar 1768. On 23 April 1744 he married Deborah Howard who died 25 Oct 1768. It is unclear why there is a reference of "non com" June 1734 when Thomas Kimball was appointed guardian.

V. gen. Abiah Haseltine born 24 Feb 1745 married on Jan 1766 Phineas Cole, born 1744/45.
Source: Haseltine Genealogy.
Elizabeth Davis, a fourth generation descendent of John Eaton (1590-1668) was born 29 Feb 1700 and married Caleb Dalton on 26 Aug 1725. Caleb was born 9 Feb 1697. Caleb was a fifth generation Dalton, son of Samuel who was killed in the Haverhill Massacre.

In the same generation, Mary Eaton who was born June 1707 married Isaac Dalton on 28 Dec 1727. Isaac who was born 10 Oct 1699 was the son of the above Samuel who was killed in the Haverhill massacre. Isaac enlisted in the Militia and died at Cape Breton after 1744. Mary Eaton Dalton outlived him with minor children and survived until 6 July 1758.
Source: Eaton Genealogy.

Eleanor Merrill who married Isaac Dalton, Revolutionary War soldier was a 6th generation Merrill. Her father was Winthrop Merril who was born 31 Oct 1733 in Amesbury MA and died in 1781. His home was at Amesbury Ferry. Winthrop was a carpenter and furnished the timber for the frigate Alliance. On 3 Feb 1756 he married Hannah Young, daughter of William and Sarah (York) Young. In 1804 Sarah was living in the same place as her daughter Eleanor, Warner, NH.

Eleanor was born on 20 October 1763 and married Isaac Dalton on 4 Mar 1784 and lived in Warner NH. The life of Isaac has been documented in an earlier "Daltons in History" and in the DGS Journals. Elinor had 7 siblings.

Elinor's sister, Sarah, born 25 Aug 1759 died 6 Mar 1858. She had married on 6 Mar 1784, Capt. Barnard Lowell of Warner, NH a soldier in the Revolution, and later a master mariner, making his home in Amesbury. The couple had eight children and he died 28 Mar 1807. Sarah remarried in 1816 to John Flanders of Boscawen, NH.
Source: A Merrill Memorial, Genealogy.

Hooper/ Dalton.
In an earlier issue of "Daltons in History", June 1999, Vol.2, No.6, there is an article "Grand Papa's Final Letter, the letter of "King" Hooper of Marblehead MA to his granddaughter, Ruth Dalton Deblois, daughter of the Hon Tristram Dalton.

Our curiosity about Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, who is celebrated in the Life and Letters by Leonard Huxley, 1918 led us to an examination of his roots. This remarkable naturalist was born at Halesworth, Suffolk, England, the second child and son of William Jackson Hooker and Maria, nee Turner of Great Yarmouth. He was named after his grandfather Hooker and after his godfather, the Rev. James Dalton, MA, FLS, Rector of Croft, Yorkshire. Rev. Dalton was a student of mosses and carices and the study of plants became a part of the life long work of young Hooper.It suggests that there may have been Dalton influence in Sir Joseph's chosen career.

While we have not made a direct biological connection to the Daltons in England, there may well be a connection to the Hoopers who came to America, non-conformists who fled. One family settled in Hampton, NH., another in Hartford, CT and another "Fighting Joe Hooker" earned his name in America's Civil War.

American descendents of Tristram Dalton will find "The Life and Letters of
Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker" a worthy read.
The first installment of the Daltons of Hampton, NH appeared in the Spring 1998 issue of the Dalton Genealogical Society Journal. The next installment will be published in the Fall 1999 issue of the Journal.


The following baptisms and marriages have been extracted by Diane Jackman of St. Johns, Newfoundland. The witnesses at the marriages and at the baptisms of the Dalton children are reported.

1. Jan 10, 1807, James Dalton married Elizabeth Shea ( witnesses: Dennis Dunn and Dennis McGrath).
Aug 19 1808 bapt. Bridget, (Thomas Martin, Mary Prendergast).
Mar 19, 1810 bapt. Mary, (Michael Murphy, Susan Ryan).

2. Jan 29 1809, John Elson married Alice Dalton, (Thomas Foley, Richard Connally).
May 4 1810 bapt. Jane (W. Donegan, Mary Foley).
Jan 17 1815, Bridget bapt. (Wm Phelan, Ellen Lumpert).
Jun 24 1816, Andrew bapt. (Ally Daulton) (Thomas Foley, M. Broderick).
Nov. 13, 1818 bapt. Samuel (James Flynn, Mrs. Thorn).
Jun 4 1820, bapt. Sarah (William Dalton, Ann Knight).
Aug 13 1822 bapt. (Alice (Daulton) (Robert Slade, Mary Wise).

3. Edmund Dalton married Catherine Murphy.
Aug 23 1812 bapt.Edward (Henry Wade, Bridget Pearl).
Nov 13 1814 bapt. William (Dawton) (John Mansfield, Alice Walsh).
Mar 4 1817 bapt. John (Dalton) (Patrick Walsh, Ann Mahony).

4. Thomas Dalton married Margaret Keppy.
Oct 9 1812 bapt. Elizabeth (Laurence Mullins, Mary Gorman).
Dec 18 1829 bapt. James (Hally) (Thomas White, Mary McGee).

5. Laurence Power married Onor Daulton.
Oct. 13 1816 bapt. Patrick (James Shea, Ellen Hamilton).

6. Thomas Dalton married ? Shea.
Mar 21 1817 bapt. Catherine (no sponsors).

7. Nov 191817 William Haw married Ann Dauton (John Murphy, Margaret Phelan).
Oct 8 1818 bapt. Michael (Dawton) (William Walsh, Joanna Chail).
Oct 2 1820 bapt. Mary (William Christopher, Honnor Dunfy).
June 23 1823 bapt. Richard (Michael Walsh, Joanna Dannal).

8. Nov 23 1817 Samuel Dalton married Mary Murphy (John Dempster and Joanna Shurley).

9. David Lawler married Bridget Dalton.
Jul 29, 1818 bapt. Ellen (James Murphy, Christian Doyle).
Nov 28 1820 bapt. Mary (Lenora Hogan, Barbara Dalton).

The descendency charts of John Dalton of Alexandria, VA differ as to his origin. One group claims that he was born in VA in 1722 while the other gives his birthplace as Yorkshire, England. Much has been written about his possible origins but it has never been resolved.

DGS member, Nancy Palmer Harvey, of Tallahassee, FL has accumulated some information on John Dalton and his brother Robert as she has searched for a connection between her ancestor, John Bridges, and the Shaws who were the in-laws of John Dalton through his wife, Jemima Shaw. She shares this information with the Daltons.

As readers familiar with this Dalton line know, John Dalton was in partnership with John Carlyle. His other close friends and business associates were William Ramsay and John Pagan all of Scottish ancestry and the three were Scottish merchant factors. Nancy has found several references to Dalton in a book by James D. Munson, a scholarly study done for the Carlyle House in Alexandria. The book is entitled "Col. John Carlyle, Gent., A True and Just Account of the Man and His House".

John Dalton made a trip to Carlisle, England. He was carrying a letter dated Feb 1746 from John Carlyle to his brother George in Whitehaven, England. He arrived in Kendal, England with the letter and gifts for George. John Carlyle wrote ..." This now Comes by the Hudson on Board which Ship comes my good friend Mr. Jn Dalton ..." There is a passage that also states that John Carlyle's main employment when he arrived (in VA) was with a Mr Hicks of Whitehaven, England. Thus Carlyle became an agent for Hicks procuring and selling goods for him in VA and MD. It is likely that Carlyle met Dalton through the Hicks connection.

In October of 1765, Robert Dalton, identified as John's brother, sold most of his effects to Carlyle and Dalton (the firm) and sailed for England in November 1765. He never reached Carlisle, England. John Carlyle wrote to his brother George ( in the Carlyle Papers, Virginia Historical Society) referring to letters he had sent with Robert Dalton that were lost with Robert's ship. "Poor Robin his fate is very certain ... his Brother (John) bears his Misfortune as a good Christian should" wrote John Carlyle.

A letter William Ramsay wrote while in Great Britain gives a few of the details: Dalton's ship was wrecked but Robert and some others survived, only to be murdered by natives ashore (refers to a letter Ramsay wrote to Harry Piper from Whitehaven, England on 2 April 1766. (The Ramsay Family Papers, Div. of Domestic Life, Smithsonian Institution, Museum of American History). Two possible places for the shipwreck were Barbados which was part of the triangle trade (rum, slaves) which Dalton and Carlyle were involved in, or off the coast of Cape Verde Islands another major stopover on the England to US trade route.

We know that one of Ramsay's brothers was located in Kircumenbright, Scotland across Solway Bay from Whitehaven, England and in fact one can draw a triangle between these two cities and Kendal, all of which are on or near Solway Bay in northwest England. In view of the the sale of his properties in VA, and aborted trip to England, we then wonder whether Robert was returning to his native land. We can speculate on John Dalton's earlier voyage to the same area of England. Were roots involved as well as business? We would like to hear from any one with knowledge of Scottish Merchant Factors of that time period. Nancy would also like to hear from anyone researching Bridges in Virginia and any possible connections to Shaw or Dalton. Nancy may be contacted at

Our appreciation goes to Nancy for her contributions to this article. For further information about the history of John Dalton, see DGS Journal 28, Spring 1998 "John Dalton a Founder of Alexandria, VA".

Welsh Data

Rodney Dalton, UT who has been researching Thomas Dalton of Pembrey, Wales, emigrant to America, has been working to document the accepted and widely disseminated information on Thomas. In the course of his searching he has found some information on a Welch Dalton which may be of interest and may be part of the line.

Charles Dalton, born in 1639 to Walter Dalton and Jane Needham.
Lease dated 30th April 1688 99/7938 Cawdor, Volume One, between John Vaughan, Lord of Vaughan, Baron of Emlyn, Knight of the Honorable Order of Bath, Earl of Carbery and Charles Dalton, Gentleman.
Charles Dalton was the Estate Agent for the Vaughan Family at this time.

Cawdor Books (Golden Grove), 30th April 1688.
John, Lord of Vaughan, Baron of Emlyn, Knight of the Honorable Order of the Bath, Earl of Carbery.
Charles Dalton of Pembrey, Gentleman.
Lease for 99 years or three lives, whichever is shorter, a house and garden within Bayly Walls, a dyehouse near Kidwelly Bridge, and lands at Pain Kidwelly, Skbor Britt Park Mayne, Sundayes Well, Park Sumer Way, Kyver Back, Park Louland, Ridges and Lords land, in the town and parish of Kydwelly, in consideration of a fine of 20p an annual rent of 7.7d and heriot of the best beast.
Witness: William Davies, Thomas Beale, Dau.Powell - See 99/7945 dated 10th March 1704 wherein a fine of 20p is commuted to 7.10.0d.

On the 10th March 1704 there is another entry, 99/7945, which is the same as the above entry with the following addition. This lease was granted upon the surrender of an earlier lease dated 30th April 1688 wherein the fine to be paid was 20p, otherwise conditions the same in this lease.
Witness: Jane Dalton, Evan Price, Morgan Davies.

English Bible Entries

Bible Inscription, Ref. Req/0019
with Love from Alex'dr. Sutherland
24 March 1902
In Hebrew, "Thou Shalt Love They Neighbor as Thyself".

The Middleham Bible
The entries in the Middleham Bible begin in 1823 at Tadcaster, York and continue with entries, births, marriages and deaths in the County of York until the 1860's. And thence the marriages begin at Newton Le Williams, Lancashire, and Carlisle.
Percy Charles Middleham was born 29 Feb. 1864 in Carlisle.
He was listed at 22 English St., Carlisle when he married Mary Jane DALTON of Crosby on Eden at St James Church, 21 Nov 1893.
Percy Charles Middleham Family
Albert Edward Middleham, born 16 Jul. 1896, dead.
Arthur Middleham, 9 Dec. 1898.
Maurice Middleham, 23 Sept. 1900.

Anyone interested in the Bible entries may contact:

A Nuptial Arrangement English Style

A recent query asked the the significance of a bride wearing "a smock and no head gier" at her wedding in England. (from the GOONS, Guild of One Name Studies).

The answer is from Colin Chapman's book, Marriage Laws, Rites, Records & Customs.
The belief that a bride wearing only a chemise (or nothing at all) at her wedding absolved the bridegroom of all her debts forever, appears to have waned by the 20th century. This derived from the fact that until the late 19th century a husband was responsible for his wife's debts "because on marriage he acquired an absolute interest in her personal estate: hence if he acquired no property from her (even clothing) he could not be compelled to satisfy the claims of her creditors".

From Prescott's Journal, Feb 12, 1774. .....but as the bride was a little in debt, the bridgroom obliged her to be married in a shift, and the weather being very severe, threw her into such a violent fit of shakig as induced the compassionate Minister to cover her with his coat. A bride in these circumstances, if she wore a shift was said to be married "en chemisette". It was not unknown for her to be married actually naked.